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天坛双语导游词

发布时间:2020-01-03 03:48:46

下面是小编为大家带来的天坛双语导游词,各位导游朋友们,欢迎大家借鉴!

天坛双语导游词

各位游客,我们今天所要参观的就是以前皇帝祭天的地方——天坛。

明朝永乐皇帝迁都北京以后,在北京南城仿照南京的大祀殿建立了这作用于祭天的圣坛,占地面积达到了273万平方米。

主建筑是大祀殿,也就是今天祈年殿的位置上。

天坛有外坛墙和内坛墙,北面是圆形,南面是方形,取意天圆地方。

天坛双语导游词

在一开始,祭天和祭地都是天坛,直到明嘉靖年间在北城修建了地坛,才分开的,并且新增了圜丘坛,用于孟冬祭天,把原来的大祀殿改为大享殿,专门用于孟春祈谷,当时殿宇屋顶已经是三重檐了,从上至下的蓝黄绿三色瓦分别代表了天地万物。

而在乾隆年间,有将大享殿改为现在的祈年殿,而将屋顶瓦片都改成了蓝色的琉璃瓦。

从而形成了今天我们所看到的这个世界上最大的祭天建筑群。

可是这样一个祭天圣地,却也曾经在1860年时遭到英法联军的洗劫,继而在1900年的时候又遭到了八国联军的蹂躏。

在1916年袁世凯登基的时候也曾经在天坛上演了一出祭天的闹剧。

在1918年,天坛最终还是以公园开放。

解放以后天坛不仅成了著名的旅游景点,而且还是北京城市绿地的组成部分,来这里的不光是旅游者,还不乏一些专门为了强身健体的老人们。

现在就让我们沿着当年皇帝登坛的路线开始此次游览。

说完了神坛的奇妙,我在给您介绍一下祭天大典的盛况。

到了每年的冬至,皇帝就要在这里祭天。

在大典前两天,皇帝要在故宫里进行斋戒,而到了第三天,也就是冬至前一天,就要到天坛的斋宫进行斋戒。

冬至那天,在日出前七刻,现在的凌晨四点多,奏报时辰,皇帝起驾,斋宫东北角的钟楼开始鸣钟。

到具服台盥洗更衣,神牌都送到台面相应的位置,也就是七组神位,称作七幄;在圜丘前燔柴炉上放一只牛犊,用松枝燔烧,西南的望灯杆望灯高悬,点燃蟠龙通宵宝蜡,台南广场上排列着奏乐队,配合着中和韶乐,在文武百官的陪同下,祭天大典就正式开始了,皇帝由南棂星左门登坛,这时钟声停止,到了第二层南侧拜位站好后,听候司赞人报仪程。

恭读至皇天上帝的祝文。

礼仪结束以后,要将神位前的贡品分别送到燔柴炉(从正位幄次撤下的祭品再次焚烧,皇帝也要一旁恭立目视,称为望燎)和燎炉(圜丘坛共有12座燎炉,在瘗坎北侧,从东向西排列着8个;内围护墙东西棂星门外各有一对。

从配位幄次车下的祭品分别送到8个燎炉内焚烧,而四个从位幄次的祭品送到棂星门处)焚烧,烟雾腾空,象征着送到天庭。

而后还要将牛尾、牛毛、牛血送到瘗坎掩埋,象征不忘祖先茹毛饮血之意。

在这个典礼上,需要特别提到的是皇帝恭读祝文所站立的地方,就是刚才所说的台面中心天心石。

他是天坛三大声学现象之一。

在这里朗读的时候声音特别洪亮,而且现在这里也是一样的,各位游客不妨体会一下这奇特的效果,也像当年的皇帝一样,向上天诉说自己美好的愿望。

现在咱们继续沿着中轴线行走,面前的建筑叫做天库,而它的正殿就是皇穹宇。

皇穹宇建于明嘉靖九年,起初叫做泰神殿,到了十七年,改名为现在的皇穹宇,它的作用就是在平日存放圜丘坛祭祀主神的地方,所以这里也叫圜丘坛寝宫。

殿内正面的圆形石台上安放的就是皇天上帝的神牌,而前边两侧的四个方形石台上安放的则是八位祖先神主,还有东西配殿用来存放从祀神位。

而皇穹宇三个字也分别代表了至高无上,天,宇宙的意思,更加显示出它的神圣和至尊。

它是一座建筑艺术价值非常高的殿宇,总体呈圆形,下边是高2.85米的圆形须弥座,为青白石筑成,有东南西三个方向的出陛,也就是台阶,而在南向出陛还有二龙戏珠的丹陛石。

上边是蓝色筒瓦单檐攒尖鎏金宝顶。

而在殿内还有八根檐柱和八根金柱,大殿上架没有横梁承托,全都是靠各类斗拱层层上叠来支撑,步步收缩,从而形成了精美的穹隆圆顶。

这里边还运用了物理学中的杠杆原理。

这组建筑不仅十分精美,而且还有回音壁和三音石,这和刚才我们说的天心石合称天坛三大声学现象。

回音壁就是皇穹宇的外墙,围墙建造的磨砖对缝,十分的平滑,是很好的声音载体,可以传声,在传递途中对声音损失极小,只要对着墙说话,就算相隔四五十米,见不到面,都可以清晰的听到对方说话。

而三音石则是皇穹宇大殿正前方的三块石头,您站在第一块石头上拍手可以听到一次回音,第二块石头可以听到两次,而第三块就可以听到三次回音,所以称为三音石。

在后来也有人把它叫做三才石,取天地人三才的意思。

也许您刚才就已经注意到了,天坛有非常多的柏树,不错,它就好像北京一个天然的氧吧。

而在这许多古柏当中,有一株500余岁的桧柏,就是回音壁西墙外的这棵九龙柏。

它的树干纹理非常的奇特,布满了沟壑,而且旋转扭曲,好像9条蟠龙缠绕嬉戏,所以叫它九龙柏真是一点也不过分。

谢谢大家,如有不妥之处,还望见谅。

(Inside the South Gate of the Temple of Heaven)

Ladies and Gentlemen:

Welcome to the temple of Heaven. (After self-introduction) preserved cultural heritages of China. There are basically two kinds of visitors who come here: local pensioners who do exercises here in the morning and evening and sightseers both from home and abroad. All in all ,there are 12 million visitors very year. Now we are going to go along the route that leads to the alter. It will take roughly one hour. Mind you ,the emperor also walked along this route to pay tribute to the God of Heaven.

(Along the Southern Sacred Road leading to the Circular Mound Altar)

The largest group of architectures ever to be dedicated to Heaven ,the Temple of Heaven served as an exclusive altar for Chinese monarchs during the Ming and Qing dynasties. It was decreed that rulers of successive dynasties would place altars in their own capitals to worship Heaven and pray for good harvest. But why ?

The ancient Chinese believed that Heaven was the supreme ruler of the universe and the fate of mankind ,and thus worshiping rites dedicated to Heaven came into being.

The Heaven the ancient Chinese referred to was actually the Universe, or nature. In those days, there were specfic rites of worship. This was especially true during the Ming and Qing dynasties when elaborate ceremonies were held.

The Temple of Heaven was built in 1420 during the reign of Emperor Youngle of the Ming Dynasty. Situated in the southern part of the city ,this grand set of structures covers an area of 273 hectares. To better symbolize heaven and earth ,the northern part of the Temple is circular while the southern part is square .The whole compound is enclosed by two walls, a square wall outside a round one. The outer area is characterized by suburban scenery, while the inner part is used for sacrifices. The inner enclosure consists of the Hall of Prayer for Good Harvest and the Circular Mound Altar.

(Along the Imperial Passage leading from the Southern Lattice Star Gate in front of the Circular Mound Altar)

the Circular Mound Altar is enclosed by two walls ,each containing four groups of Southern Lattice Star Gate, each in turn consisting of three doors, with 24 marble doors altogether. Standing on the passage facing north, you will notice that with each pair of doors on is narrower than the other. This reflects the feudal hierarchy: the wider door was reserved for monarchs, while the narrower one was used by courtiers.

On the day of the ceremony ,the emperor would don his ritual costume and be ushered in by the official in charge of religious affairs. He ascended the three terraces in the forefront to pay tribute at the alter.

(Atop the Circular Mound Alter)

we are now on the top terrace of the

Altar, or the third terrace .Each terrace has a flight of 9 steps. At the center of this terrace lies a round stone surrounded by 9 steps. At the center of this terrace lies a round stone surrounded by 9 concentric rings of stone. The number of stones in the first ring is 9, in the second ,18, up to 81 in the 9th ring. Even the number of carved balustrades on these terraces is a multiplee of 9. But why?

According to ancient Chinese philosophy, yin and yang were two opposing factors. Heaven and the odd numbers belonged to yang while the Earth and even numbers belonged to yin. Nine was the largest heavenly number accessible to man . What is more, the ancient people also believed that heaven consisted of nine layers and that the emperor` s abode was on the uppermost tier.

Once more look at the round stone in the center. The upper terrace is nine zhang (a Chinese unit of length, one zhang equals 3.3 meters ) in circumference ,while the middle is 15 zhang, the lower, 21 zhang. Classified as yang numbers, the sum of these numerals is 45 zhang which was meant to symbolized success. What is more, by applying the concept of odd numbers and strengthening nine and its multiples, the concept of heaven was thus illustrated and realized . The concept of nine will also be mentioned when we visit some other buildings.

Now I will give you a brief account of what happened here annually on the Inter Solstice. The memorial tablet dedicated to Heaven would be set up on the north side of the terrace, while tablets dedicated to the emperor `s ancestors would be enshrined on the flanks. The service would begin around 4 o` clock in the morning. All of the lanterns would be lit .In the foreground, a sacrificial calf is being barbecued. On the square in front of the altar, the emperor, under heavy escort of nearly a thousand courtiers, princes of royal blood ,musicians, dancers and uniformed soldiers, would slowly ascend the altar to offer sacrifice and pray in honor of Heaven. When the service drew to a close ,the sacrifice offered in front of the memorial tablets would be incinerated .All of participants would watch the thick smoke rise upward as if they were seeing God off .Music and dancing would follow .In the end ,the emperor would return to the Forbidden City secure in the belief that he would be blessed and protected by Heaven until the next winter Solstice.

It is interesting to note that ,the stone in the very middle of the altar was of major importance ,since it was where the emperor used to stand to say his prayer. The stone ,which is known as the God`s heart Stone, is peculiar in that it is characterized by a specific acoustic phenomenon: it made the emperor` s voice clearer and louder, thus adding to the mystic atmosphere of the service .You can try this out by yourself. (Proceed northward to pass through the Lattice StarGate)

(In front of the Gate of glazed tiles)

this structure is known as Heaven` s Storehouse. It is entered through the Gate of glazed Tiles. The roofing ,beams, and brackets are all made of glazed tiles or bricks. This is the only structure of its kind in china today .

the Heaven` s Storehouse was where memorial tablets dedicated to the gods were kept. Douglas Hurd, a former British foreigh secretary ,once said , “God attends to His affairs on the Cir4cular Mound Altar but stays here. ” Now let` s go in to to see it (Go through the left side door)

(In the courtyard of Heaven` s Storehouse)

this is the Imperial Vault of Heaven, the main structure of Heaven` s Storehouse. It was built in 1530 and is 17 meters in height and 19 meters in diameter. The structure feature blue roofs topped by a gilded ball ,and carved wooden doors and windows. It is decorated with colored paintings. Founded on a 3-meter-hign round marble terrace ,the building also features a gigantic carved marble ramp laid in the stone staircase leading up to the front entrance.. The ramp is carved in “Two dragons Playing with a pearl ” design in relief. We will enter the main hall by going up the stone staircase on the eastern side.

(On the marble terrace of the main hall)

the arch of the hall is buttressed by 16 giant pillars on two rings. On top of the pillars there are gilt brackets supporting a circular caisson ,or covered ceiling .The ceiling is characterized by a golden coiling dragon design. The 8 pillar of the inner ring are painted scarlet and decorated with golden lotuses.

To the north of the hall there is a marble pedestal. Atop it ,up a wooden flight of 9 steps, is where the major tablet dedicate to Heaven was enshrined. On each flank four tablets are enshrined in honor of the ancestors of the Qing emperors. In the annex hall in hornor of the ancestors of the Qing emperors. In the annex halls in the courtyard, there are tablets dedicated to the deities of the sun, moon ,constellation, cloud ,rain, wind and thunder.

(Echo Wall and Triple –sound Stones)

Aside from exquisitely laid out architectures, Heaven` s Storehouse is also famous for two structures with peculiar acoustic features, i. E. the Echo Wall and the Triple- Sound Stone. A mere whisper at any point close to the wall can be heard clearly on the other side, although the parties may be 40 or 50 meters apart. This is possible because the wall is round and hermetically constructed with smooth ,solid bricks.

In front of the steps leading away from the halls is the Triple Sound Stone. If you stand on the first stone and call out or clap your hands, the sound will echo once; on the second stone, the sound will be heard twice; and on the third stone, the sound will repeat three times. Hence the name. (Go out through the right door and stroll along the circular path nor thward)

(Nine-Dragon Cypress)

the Temple of Heaven is also famous for its cypress trees-there are more than 60,000 cypress trees in all ,among which over 4,000 are more than one hundred years old ,adding to the solemn atmosphere of the temple .This tall cypress was planted more than 500 years ago. Its thick branches and twisting trunk resembling nine coiling playful dragons; thus it is known as the Nine-Dragon cypress. It is said that this tree was here to welcome the monarchs. Now it is here to welcome visitor from all over the world.

(In the south of Chengzhen Gate)

now we are back again on the Central Axis. This brick-arched gate is known as Chengzhen (Adopting Fidelity) .This gate is the northern gate of the Circular Mound Altar and the Hall of Prayer for Good Harvest. The Hall of Prayer for Good Harvest is situated at the extreme end of the axis. It was used by the emperor in the first month of every lunar year for services dedicated to good harvest.

(On the Red Stairway Bridge)

entering the Hall of Prayer for Good Harvest, we set foot on a raised passage 360 meters long, which the emperor also took to proceed to the hall. This broad north-south walkway, called Danbiqiao (Red Stairway bridge), connects the two sets of main building in the Temple of Heaven and constitutes a single axis.

The passage is divided into left, control and right paths by the cross arrangement of slabs. The central and the widest path is known as Heavenly Thoroughfare , which was reserved exclusively for God; nobody, including the emperor, was allowed to set foot onto it . The emperor used the path on the east ,which is known as the Imperial Walk. The ministers and princes used the one on the west .Interesting enough ,there is no walkway left for ordinary people. This is because the Temple of Heaven used to be off-limits to them.

Contrary to appearances, this walkway is not a bridge at all . But how so ? This road is 4 meters above the ground and there is a cavern underneath that was reserved for sacrificial oxen and sheep. The cattle were slaughtered at a slaughterhouse about 500 meters away and brought here for sacrifice. All in all ,it can be said this walkway did serve as bridge and can be looked upon as the first cloverleaf in Beijing.

Looking back at the thoroughfare, you may realize that this walk is gaining height toward its northern end. As people approach the architectural group of the Hall of Prayer for good Harvest, the flanking groves of cypress recede and perspective widens. Here you are in Heaven.

(Costume-Changing Terrace)

the marble terrace up ahead is called jufutai, or CostumeChanging Terrace. It is located to the east of the Red Stairway Bridge and covers a space of 25 square meters .IT has marble Slab balustrades. The day before the service ,officials in charge would put up a yellow satin tent on the terrace for the emperor to change out of his yellow dragon robe into blue ceremonial clothes. After the service, the emperor would return to the tentand change back into his imperial robe before returning to the palace. (Proceed to the South Gate of the Hall of Prayer for Good Harvest)

(At the Gate of Prayer for Good Harvest)

this structure is called the Gate of Pray for Good Harvest. We can catch a slight glimpse of the central building ,the Hall of Prayer for Good harvest, though the colonnade of the Gate. A gigantic and lofty group of buildings, the complex includes the Gate of Prayer for Good Harvest, the hall of prayer for good harvest, eastern and western annex halls ,the Huanqian (Imperial heaven) Long corridor, Heaven Kitchen, slaughterhouse, etc.

the annex halls were symmetrically built on a 1.5-meter-hignbrick-and-marble terrace ,to set off the loftiness and magnificence of the main hall .This unique building ,38 meters in height, is characterized by a cone-shaped structure with triple eaves and a top that is crowned by a gilt ball. The roofing is made of blue glazed tiles, the color of the sky .Underneath the roof, the beams and bracket are decorated with colored paintings. The base of the structure is a triple-tiered, circular marble terrace. At a distance, the terrace looks like a gigantic, spiraling cloud with the structure perched on top of it .

Today the hall of prayer for good harvest is the hallmark of Beijing, which enjoys a prolonged history of civilization.

(At the base of the Hall of Prayer for Good Harvest)

The base of the hall is a triple-tiered, circular marble terrace, which is 90 meters in diameter and 6 meters in height ,covering a space of 4,000 square meters. Meticulous accuracy was given to the layout of the structure. In the middle of each three-tiered flight of stairs, there is a giant marble ramp carved in cloud, dragon and phoenix designs. To set off the ramps, the top of the balustrades and downpipes are designed with corresponding floral scrolls. In southern part of each tier, a gigantic bronze incense burner is placed. Sandalwood was burnt in them when rites were observed.

(In front of the hall of Prayer for good harvest)

climbing up this marble terrace, we see the main hall ,a masterpiece of ancient China. Looking up you will see the caisson, or covered ceiling, characterized by complex designs of dragons and phoenixes. In and out , the hall is decorated with colored drawing of dragons and phoenixes.

Without the use of steel ,cement and nail, and even without the use of big beams and crossbeams, the entire structure is supported by 28 massive wooden pillars and number of bars, laths, joints and rafters. The four central pillars, called the dragon-Well Pillars, are 19.2 meters high and painted with designs of composite followers, representing the four season. There are two rings of 12 scarlet pillars each. The inner ring represents the 12 months and the outer rings the 12 divisions of the day and night .Between the two rings there are 24 partitioned spaces to mark the solar terms of the Chinese lunar year. The pillars, 28 in number, also represent the 28 constellations in the universe- the ancient Chinese believed that there were 28 constellations that made up the sky.

The center of the stone-paved floor is a round marble slab, which is 88.5 centimeters in diameter. Interestingly, the slab features natural black and white veins, corresponding to the dragon-phoenix design on the ceiling. This particular slab is known as the Dragon-phoenix stone and is regarded as a treasure inseparable from the hall.

The furnishings within the hall are placed in their original positions dating back to when Emperor Xianfeng ruled .In the forefront and above the throne are enshrined tablets in commemoration of Heaven. On either table on each side tablets of the emperor` s ancestors were placed. Each tablet is fronted by an altar. A total of 24 kinds of offering were made on it ,including soup, wine, assorted cereals, and a calf.

The sacrificial rites were observed in the wee hours of the morning, sometime in the first month of the Chinese lunar year. Because it was still dark, candles, lanterns and torches were lit. This lighting coupled with the incense being burnt inside the hall ,helped make the ceremony both grand and mystical.

By the time the service began,207 musicians and dancers would be performing on platforms outside the hall. The emperor, in his blue sacrificial robe and with an air of piety and sincerity, would walk slowly into the hall, kowtow, and offer wine and prayer in hornor of the deities and his ancestors. All of the offerings would then be taken to incinerators on the eastern side of the gate of prayer for Good Harvest. With this we conclude our visit to the Temper of Heaven. The feudal monarchs and their sacrificial rites have long vanished in history .However, this group of magnificent and lofty structures remain as a fine testament of the ancient Chinese` s ingenuity and as one of the cultural heritages of mankind.

(On the Long Corridor)

From the Eastern Gate of the hall of prayer for good harvest, we have now enter a 300-meter-long corridor. Consisting of 72 sections, this corridor served as a connecting building between the Slaughterhouse. Heaven Kitchen, and the main hall ,It is said that this once served as a sacrificial food production line. Flanking the corridor are shopping stalls. You may find some souvenirs for your family and friend there.

Well ,that is all for this tour. Thank you for your attention. I look forward to your next visit. Good luck and bon voyage.


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